Spectacled Owl

Spectacled Owl

Pulsatrix perspicillata Order: Strigiformes Family: Strigidae

Overview

Raised correctly, spectacled owls are reported to make excellent glove birds for educational programming.

To maximize lifelong welfare of an owl that is going to participate in ambassador animal programs, and as such be exposed to close contact with humans and a variety of stimuli that could otherwise be intimidating or inducive of unavoidable stress, it is recommended to hand-rear individuals slated to become ambassadors. Hand-rearing should occur during the formative stage of life, within the first few months of hatching. Hand-rearing owls allows the human caretaker to expose the owl from an early age to a variety of conditions it may encounter as an ambassador (crowds, vehicles, buildings, novel noises, etc.) while it is at the best stage to learn these stimuli are non-threatening, which generally helps them adapt to life under human care, in their roles as ambassadors, much more than parent-reared owls.

Natural History Information

Range and Habitat

Spectacled owls live from southern Mexico to northwest Argentina. They occur more frequently in dense tropical rainforest with mature, large trees. They are also found in dry forest, forest edges, treed savanna habitat, plantations, and open areas with scattered trees.

 

Longevity

Spectacled owls can live for 25 to 30 years.

Ecosystem Role

Husbandry Information

Housing Requirements

Life Cycle Natural History Relevant Information

  • During the breeding season, both male and female individuals may demonstrate natural breeding behaviors that make them more challenging to work with and around. Consider time off from ambassador duties during this time.

Temperature, Humidity, Light Cycles

  • Spectacled owls are a neotropical species. A heat source is recommended in temperatures below freezing. To note, in areas experiencing snow and where these birds have outdoor access, it is most important to make sure perches are kept free of snow accumulation.

Substrate:

  • This species can be successfully managed on a variety of substrates, such as pea-gravel, sand, dirt, grass.

Social Housing/Colony Management

  • Although more typically housed solitary in ambassador situations, it is possible to house more than one spectacled owl together. In such cases attention should be paid to individual preference and birds should be afforded enclosure space large enough to be separate from each other, should they choose.

Other General Housing Requirements or Management information

  • Multiple perching options are necessary to maintain good foot health.
  • Having a perching area which is high and also in the corner gives the bird a sense of security and mimics natural behavior of perching on a branch near a tree trunk. It is also important to have both sun and shade areas in the exhibit, as well as an area which is covered so the bird can remove itself from the elements if need be.
  • Most owls do well with some kind of box or small shelter in their enclosure.
  • Space should meet minimum USFW standards.
  • Enclosure be constructed with materials that reduce the possibility of damage to the feathers or to the owl itself (for example, bare wire mesh is less desirable than vertical bars or coated mesh).
  • Flight-capable individuals need flight exercise to maintain muscle mass.
  • A double door mew entrance is ideal for any bird of prey. This allows handlers to enter the enclosure safely and without incident.

Diet Requirements

Diet in the Wild
  • In the wild, spectacled owls eat small mammals, including mice, bats, and the occasional possum or skunk, insects, spiders, caterpillars, crabs, frogs, and birds up to the size of jays.

Diet under human care

  • Quail, chicks, ducklings, mice, rat, rabbit, and bird-of-prey diet.

Veterinary Concerns

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Enrichment & Training

Enrichment

Behavioral Relevant Information

  • Raptors seize and rip apart their prey. Offering whole prey items, shreddable enrichment items, items they can grab and manipulate with their talons or shred with their beaks are all good forms of enrichment.

Environmental Enrichment

  • Changing perches within their habitat.
  • Addition of browse.

Behavioral Enrichment

  • The most successful enrichment devices appear to be items that can be footed and shredded, such as paper products, cardboard boxes, lettuce, melons, squash or other produce. These items can be provided alone or stuffed with prey or diet, although raptors should be monitored for ingestion of foreign objects if food is delivered with a novel item. Other successful items include tennis balls, holl-ee rollers, and canvas dog toys, which present opportunities for seizing, grabbing, mock “killing,” and mantling.

Schedule

  • Daily enrichment is recommended.

Other Enrichment Resources

  • AZA’s Raptor TAG has a comprehensive list of raptor-appropriate enrichment as well as other suggestions on raptor enrichment programs on their website.

Training

Behaviors Trained
  • Voluntary step-up to glove
  • Voluntary loading into crate
  • Voluntary scale
  • Voluntary nail trim
  • Calm behavior on glove
Reinforcers used & schedule of reinforcement
  • Using food and/or weight management as part of a good behavioral management program facilitates training by creating a learning environment in which owls want to participate. Training strategies that involve reducing food offered to the point of compromising the health of the bird are considered unacceptable. Food management and weight management practices that are safe for the owl and trainers, provide for the health and welfare of the owl, and facilitate training are recommended.
  • Food and or weight management should be done with an understanding of the process and considerations. The decision to use weight management should not be taken lightly nor undertaken at all by staff who do not have a comprehensive understanding of managing weight and diet.

Other

Colony or Breeding Management

  • Notes species is housed or managed socially or for breeding purposes.

Individual Identification

  • Dimorphism or practiced ways to individually mark species (such as those in colonies, like giant millipedes).

 

Programmatic Information

Messaging Themes

Wild owl populations face a multitude of threats; fortunately, there are a number of individual and community-level actions that people can take to help to protect owls in the wild. Some examples are listed below.

Pesticide and Rodenticide use:

As predators of rodents, all raptors, including owls, are incredibly vulnerable to rodenticide poisoning. Encourage responsibly use and properly manage rodenticides. Owls are also susceptible to pesticide biomagnification and mercury poisoning. Encourage people to avoid using pesticides on their lawns, and instead rely on native plantings or other environmentally responsible methods of pest management.

Human-Wildlife Interactions

Roadside litter is a threat to many owl species. Rodents are attracted to the litter, and a low-flying owl in pursuit of a rodent is vulnerable to a vehicular collision. Encourage visitors to dispose of their trash in an appropriate receptacle, not on the roadside, even if it is biodegradable. Owls are also susceptible to death through barbed wire or electrocution from power lines. We can help by supporting man-made barriers that keep birds away from high-electricity areas. Owls are highly sensitive nesters, and even slight disturbances can lead to abandonment. We can help by reducing activity in known nesting areas and avoiding owl nests when trimming trees or in forestry management.

Habitat Loss

Protecting habitat and supporting conservation organizations can help to protect populations of both predator and prey species.

 

Threats and Conservation Status

This species is very elusive in the wild, so not many predators are known. There is some evidence that larger bird species may prey on spectacled owls.

Spectacled owls are not globally threatened, and may be quite common locally. Extensive deforestation may be affecting this species in some areas. It is listed under Appendix II by CITES (may become threatened if trade is not regulated.)

Prejudices against birds of prey still persist among many who wrongly believe that they harm wildlife or present major threats to domestic animals. Biological studies have documented their ecological importance as major controls on rodent populations. Some birds of prey feed on snakes, insects or other potential pests. No species of raptor poses a significant threat to domestic animals.

Interesting Natural History Information

 

Did you know…

  • Like other owl species, spectacled owls can turn their owls can turn their heads almost 270 degrees. This movement is an adaptation because owls’ eyes cannot move in their sockets like other animals.
  • When they turn their heads this far, a system in their neck arteries prevents the arteries from being pinched off and cutting off blood supply to the brain.
  • Owls’ eyes are supported by a ring of 12 tiny bones.
  • Their ears are offset, with one positioned slightly higher on the head to allow for sound triangulation to locate prey.
  • The feathers on the head form a “facial disc” which directs sound towards the ears.
  • The feathers on the body are coated with a soft fluff, and the edges of the flight feathers are serrated, which creates silent flight.

Handling & Presentation Tips

Use Guidelines

  • This species may be presented on glove or on perch. For tethered presentation, whether that is to the glove or to a perch, attention should be paid to avoid bating. Bating is not something that should be accepted from owls, if there are instances of such, it is an indication of discomfort, with the handler or the situation, and that discomfort should be addressed, not ignored.

 

Pubic Contact and Interaction Guidelines

  • Public contact with this species is not advisable.
  • Touching is not advisable.

 

Transportation Tips

  • Transport box suggestions Raptor Rig and Varikennel.
  • A couple things to keep in mind, crates should not be carried by the handle, but rather using two hands on either side of the crate and supporting it adequately. Swinging transport crates around and or moving them on a bumpy cart may create negative association for the bird, due to an uncomfortable ride and decrease the likelihood that the bird will go in the box on future occasions. If the perch is to low for the bird, their tail feathers may get painted with fecal matter which does not look good on presentation. Varikennel you are able to adjust the height of the perch.

Crating Techniques

  • This species can be trained to voluntarily enter a crate either from the glove or directly from their enclosure. Continuous reinforcement of voluntary crate behaviors as well as dedication to their comfort and safety while in the crate is important to maintaining solid and reliable crate behavior.

Temperature Guidelines

  • When transporting and using on programs, attention should be paid to the comfort of the individual and any signs of heat distress responded to accordingly. In temperatures below freezing it is important to consider heat for this species, although short periods outdoors, even in freezing temperatures, is fine as long as monitoring the individual for signs of discomfort and responding accordingly.

Acquisition Information

Contact the SSP coordinator, Steve Sarro, if you are interested in acquiring a burrowing owl as an ambassador animal.

Spectacled Owl SSP webpage

Resources

Contributors and Citations

  • Content taken from the draft Owl Care Manual Ambassador Animal Chapter prepared by:
    • Jacque Williamson, Brandywine Zoo
    • Helen Dishaw, Jackie Kozlowski, Tracy Aviary
    • Kit Lacy, Cascades Raptor Center
    • Amy Fennell, Natural Encounters, Inc.

Comments from the Rating System

  • Philadelphia Zoo: Our rating is based on only one individual, but it has been a VERY good experience. He was socialized when young. He is very popular with visitors.

Top Photo Credit:

Tracy Aviary